Skip links and keyboard navigation

In 2015, the GasFields Commission completed a review of science communication resources relating to the onshore gas industry in Queensland. The purpose of the review was to better direct and inform research agencies on communicating their research outcomes and activities.

The review also identified key science information resources available which the Commission has summarised and highlighted in the following Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) format.

Please note the information resources included in the FAQs are not an exhaustive list but indicative of the scientific information that is available to assist community understanding. The Commission will continue to add more information resources to this FAQ list.

Q1: What are the different types of gas in Queensland and where are they found?


Petroleum resources are distinguished as 'conventional' or 'unconventional' based on the differences in the methods of extraction. Conventional petroleum resources are oil and gas reserves found in concentrated pockets that form as a result of underground geology that allows the oil and gas to accumulate in one spot. The method of extraction involves drilling a single vertical well and pumping the gas out.

Unconventional petroleum resources are oil and gas reserves found dispersed through low permeability and low porosity rock formations, including sandstone, coal and shale. The extraction of oil and gas in these types of reserves may involve using either multiple vertical wells and/or vertical wells in combination with horizontal or directional drilling.

Note: Hydraulic fracturing is a technique used to increase the volumes of gas extracted from both conventional and unconventional wells, although it is most frequently used when drilling unconventional wells. See Q2 below for more information.


Australia has vast resources of unconventional gas including coal seam gas (CSG), shale gas, and tight gas. Currently, only coal seam gas is being developed in Queensland.


Queensland has two basins currently producing CSG, the Bowen and Surat basins. A number of other basins have potential and are currently being explored.

For further information about CSG production in Queensland, refer to Queensland's Petroleum and Coal Seam Gas 2014-15.

In Queensland, a petroleum resource authority is required under the Petroleum and Gas (Production & Safety) Act 2004 to explore for and produce gas.

Q2: What are the chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing and how are they regulated?

Q3: What is the effect of CSG extraction on the availability of groundwater in aquifers used by farmers and other users?

Q4: What is CSG water and how is it managed?

Q5: What are the potential impacts of onshore gas industry operations on agricultural land?

Q6: What are fugitive methane emissions from the CSG industry and how are these measured and controlled?

Q7: What are landscape gas seeps and why do they occur?

Q8: Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) versus Coal Seam Gas (CSG)